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"In the tree world everything happens slowly," says Rutter. "We call it tree time."uniswap factory interfaceTrees reach their ancient (or senescent) phase of life at different ages. For beech this is from 225 years old, oaks from 400 years and yew 900 years. During this phase the trunk hollows, holes and cavities appear and deadwood reaches above the living canopy.
It can take up to 300 years before heart-rot, the decay at the centre of an ageing tree, is established enough that insects can start moving in and laying their larvae, says Rutter. "It becomes a complex ecosystem. The ancient trees that we have today, ones that are 300-900 years old – perhaps older – support an incredibly wide range of species.""With current trends towards general invertebrate decline, we need to support as many pollinators as possible," says Skipp.Fast forward"For centuries, trees have been pollarded – cut and allowed to regrow. This encourages new growth and was used to produce fodder for livestock and timber," says Rutter. "The trees grew hollow inside and we’ve now found that they are rich habitats for some very demanding species of beetle and other insects. Veteranisation is based on this idea."Veteranisation is the practice of damaging younger trees in order to initiate decay sooner than it would occur naturally. The hope is that habitats usually seen in older trees will begin to develop much earlier. Veteranisation is not new, explains Rutter, but it is not well documented. Only recently has research been initiated to monitor the success of veteranisation techniques.
An international trial, started in 2012 and set over 20 sites in Sweden, England and Norway, is in the process of evaluating the veteranisation of almost 1,000 oak trees. The methods applied include creating woodpecker-like holes, breaking or ringbarking lower branches or the trunk to mimic damage from animals such as deer or horses, and creating nest boxes for birds and bats. The project is planned to take 25 years, until 2037, so the results have yet to be fully analysed."The signs are very promising," said Rutter. "Most of the trees are responding well, healing and continuing to grow. Birds, bats and insects have all been found living in the artificially created niches."For Sergeev, this includes visits to Spain, France, Germany, Switzerland and Austria as well as other countries.
He is also believed to have been in touch with members of the GRU unit involved in a planned coup in Montenegro in 2016.UK police also say they believe the three all travelled to the UK before March 2018. They say they continue to investigate other suspects.Defence Secretary Ben Wallace has launched an investigation into a data breach involving the email addresses of dozens of Afghan interpreters who worked for British forces.More than 250 people seeking relocation to the UK - many of whom are in hiding - were mistakenly copied into an email from the Ministry of Defence.
Their email addresses could be seen by all recipients, showing people's names and some associated profile pictures.The MoD has apologised in a statement.
The email was sent to interpreters who remain in Afghanistan or have been able to get to other countries.Conservative MP and former defence minister Johnny Mercer told BBC Radio 4's Today programme: "The reality is we've left the vast, vast majority of our interpreters behind so this is going to have a profound impact on people who are still in the country."He said he had spoken to the brother of one man, trained by the UK to serve in Afghan special forces, who had been executed after the evacuation by the US and UK and whose family is now on the run.Failings by the Ministry of Defence and the Home Office had led to Afghan allies being "hunted ruthlessly by the Taliban", he said.
The email was sent by the team in charge of the UK's Afghan Relocations and Assistance Policy (Arap), which has been in contact with them since the Taliban took control of the country last month.The team told the interpreters it was doing everything it could to help relocate them.It also said they should not put themselves or their families at risk if it was not safe for them to leave their current location.But one interpreter who received the email realised that more than 250 Afghans who worked with British forces had been copied into the email.
"This mistake could cost the life of interpreters, especially for those who are still in Afghanistan," they told the BBC."Some of the interpreters didn't notice the mistake and they replied to all the emails already and they explained their situation which is very dangerous. The email contains their profile pictures and contact details."
The MoD then sent another email 30 minutes later with the title "Urgent - Arap case contact" asking the recipients to delete the previous email and warning "your email address may have been compromised".It recommended the interpreters change their email addresses.
Labour shadow defence secretary John Healey said the data breach had "needlessly put lives at risk" and called on the government to urgently step up efforts to get the interpreters to the UK.After the BBC approached the Ministry of Defence, the defence secretary was angry enough to order an immediate inquiry.It's likely this data breach was just human error, and the apology is certainly sincere, but there are obviously concerns if the email addresses, names and pictures fall into the wrong hands.While the military evacuation on the ground was rightly lauded, the failure to get all those who worked with British forces out has left hundreds stranded and in hiding.Just this week we spoke to the family of an eight-month-old British baby who is still stuck there, an interpreter who is on the run fearing for his life, and another interpreter who just does not know what to do.This data breach just compounds their safety concerns.
An MoD spokeswoman said an investigation had been launched into what Mr Wallace called an "unacceptable breach"."We apologise to everyone impacted by this breach and are working hard to ensure it does not happen again," she said.
She added that the MoD "takes its information and data handling responsibilities very seriously".Tobias Ellwood MP, who chairs the defence select committee, welcomed the investigation but said it was more pressing to get the interpreters out of the country as soon as possible.
"Each day they remain in the country the risk of them not making it out increases," he said.Australia's Victoria state has shut construction sites across Melbourne following a violent protest against mandatory Covid-19 vaccines.
The protest on Monday was against a requirement for staff to prove they had received a vaccine dose to access their workplace.Officials said some sites would be shut for up to two weeks after construction workers and other protesters clashed.Property was damaged and police said several people were arrested.Hundreds gathered in Melbourne for another anti-vaccination protest on Tuesday, setting off flares and reportedly throwing urine at reporters.
On Monday, riot police were deployed and reportedly used rubber bullets and pepper spray to disperse crowds.It comes following an announcement that from Thursday 23 September construction workers will be required to show proof that they have had at least one vaccine dose in order to continue to work, local media report.
The CFMEU condemned "in the strongest possible terms" the attack on its Melbourne office, where members had shown up in support of the government mandate, saying the violence occurred after the protest was "infiltrated" by right-wing groups.Some of its members were injured during the clashes, the union said in a statement, adding that bottles were thrown at officials.
In a Facebook post, the Master Builders Association of Victoria said all building and construction industry sites in metropolitan Melbourne, Geelong, Surf Coast, Ballarat and the Mitchell Shire had to close from midnight Monday.It said this was in response to a combination of a rise in Covid-19 transmissions in the building industry and the "riots" in Melbourne.
The association added that while the construction shutdown was scheduled to last for two weeks, sites would be able to reopen earlier if lockdown measures were lifted by regional governments.With a relatively low Covid-19 death rate, Australia has been praised for its efforts controlling the virus.The country has so far recorded just over 87,000 cases of Covid-19, and 1,167 coronavirus-related deaths, according to the latest Johns Hopkins University data.However, about half the population has recently been placed in lockdown due to outbreaks in the cities of Melbourne, Sydney and Canberra, with the Delta variant causing cases to rise more rapidly.
Kabul is a city still waiting for its new life to take shape - a lot depends on the will and whims of its new Taliban masters. But it is hunger that could become the worst of Afghanistan's many crises.For the poor of the city, the majority, scraping together a few hundred Afghanis, a couple of dollars, to stave off starvation is the biggest challenge.
Millions live in desperate poverty in a country that has received huge sums in foreign aid. The money left over that might help them, around $9bn in central bank reserves, is frozen by the Americans to keep it away from the Taliban.At dawn, hundreds of construction workers gather in one of Kabul's open-air markets with their tools looking for a day's work.
Big building projects in the city have stopped. The banks are closed. The foreign money tap has been turned off. What is left amounts to a few drips.A handful of the construction workers get picked up for work. The rest are getting angry. One of the men, Hayat Khan, raged about the fortunes stolen by a corrupt elite in the last 20 years.