"We now have the evidence that links ethereum address validationthem to the GRU," Mr Haydon said. "All three are dangerous individuals."
All major assets registered a weekly increase, with investors buying up $6.6 mibitcoin futures expiration july 2021llion worth of Ether (ETH) products and $3.7 million worth of multi-asset funds. Investors also allocated $4.8 million towards Solana (SOL), disregarding a denial-of-service disruption earlier this week as a result of network congestion.In terms of actual products, 21Shares registered the largest weekly inflows at $28 million. The physically-backed crypto exchange-traded product provider now has $1.87 billion in assets under management. Grayscale remains the single largest crypto asset manager, with $43.177 billion in total assets.
Fund managers have been buying up crypto in lockstep with a broad market recovery that began in late July. Crypto markets peaked above $2.2 trillion last week after plunging to around half that amount earlier in mid-July. However, by Monday, all major crypto assets had printed heavy losses as Chinese Evergrande news walloped risk sentiment.Related: Bitcoin bounce levels extend to $36K with bulls unmoved by 8% BTC price dipInstitutional investors have become important players in the cryptocurrency market, which is a testament to the growing mainstream acceptance of digital assets. Some of crypto’s biggest asset managers told Cointelegraph earlier this year that investing in digital assets no longer carries the same level of career risk as before, which means more financial advisers and wealth managers are likely to enter the market. This was corroborated by a recent poll by London-based crypto fund Nickel Digital Asset Management, which found that most hedge fund executives have already purchased cryptocurrency.DELIVERED EVERY MONDAYSolana has attributed the 17-hour outage it suffered last week to a denial-of-service attack aimed at Grape Protocol’s Sept. 14 initial DEX offering (IDO).
In a Sept. 21 blog post, the Solana Foundation stated that bots spammed the network as Grape launched its IDO on the Solana-based decentralized exchange (DEX) Raydium at 12:00 UTC last Tuesday.The botting activity overwhelmed the network with a transaction load of 400,000 per second, with Solana noting that “unbounded growth of the forwarder queues and resource-heavy blocks” resulted in a number of forks being automatically proposed to the network.Polkadot was created by Gavin Wood, another member of the core founders of the Ethereum project who had differing opinions on the project’s future. As of September 2021, Polkadot has a market capitalization of roughly $35 billion and one DOT trades for $35.25.13
5. Bitcoin Cash (BCH)Bitcoin Cash (BCH) holds an important place in the history of altcoins because it is one of the earliest and most successful hard forks of the original Bitcoin. In the cryptocurrency world, a fork takes place as the result of debates and arguments between developers and miners. Due to the decentralized nature of digital currencies, wholesale changes to the code underlying the token or coin at hand must be made due to general consensus; the mechanism for this process varies according to the particular cryptocurrency.When different factions can’t agree, sometimes the digital currency is split, with the original chain remaining true to its original code and the new chain beginning life as a new version of the prior coin, complete with changes to its code.BCH began its life in August 2017 as a result of one of these splits. The debate that led to the creation of BCH had to do with the issue of scalability; the Bitcoin network has a limit on the size of blocks: one megabyte (MB). BCH increases the block size from one MB to eight MBs, with the idea being that larger blocks can hold more transactions within them, and the transaction speed would therefore be increased.14 It also makes other changes, including the removal of the Segregated Witness protocol that impacts block space. As of September 2021, BCH has a market capitalization of around $12 billion and a value per token of $640.15
6. Stellar (XLM)Stellar is an open blockchain network designed to provide enterprise solutions by connecting financial institutions for the purpose of large transactions. Huge transactions between banks and investment firms—typically taking several days, involving a number of intermediaries, and costing a good deal of money—can now be done nearly instantaneously with no intermediaries and cost little to nothing for those making the transaction.
While Stellar has positioned itself as an enterprise blockchain for institutional transactions, it is still an open blockchain that can be used by anyone. The system allows for cross-border transactions among any currencies. Stellar’s native currency is Lumens (XLM).16 The network requires users to hold Lumens to be able to transact on the network.Stellar was founded by Jed McCaleb, a founding member of Ripple Labs and developer of the Ripple protocol. He eventually left his role with Ripple and went on to co-found the Stellar Development Foundation.17 Stellar Lumens have a market capitalization of $565 million and are valued at $0.33 as of September 2021.187. Chainlink (LINK)Chainlink is a decentralized oracle network that bridges the gap between smart contracts, like the ones on Ethereum, and data outside of it. Blockchains themselves do not have the ability to connect to outside applications in a trusted manner. Chainlink’s decentralized oracles allow smart contracts to communicate with outside data so that the contracts can be executed based on data that Ethereum itself cannot connect to.
Chainlink’s blog details a number of use cases for its system. One of the many use cases that are explained would be to monitor water supplies for pollution or illegal siphoning going on in certain cities. Sensors could be set up to monitor corporate consumption, water tables, and the levels of local bodies of water.19 A Chainlink oracle could track this data and feed it directly into a smart contract. The smart contract could be set up to execute fines, release flood warnings to cities, or invoice companies using too much of a city’s water with the incoming data from the oracle.Chainlink was developed by Sergey Nazarov along with Steve Ellis. As of September 2021, Chainlink’s market capitalization is $13.5 billion and one LINK is valued at $30.50.208. Binance Coin (BNB)Binance Coin is a utility cryptocurrency that operates as a payment method for the fees associated with trading on the Binance Exchange. Those who use the token as a means of payment for the exchange can trade at a discount. Binance Coin’s blockchain is also the platform that Binance’s decentralized exchange operates on. The Binance exchange was founded by Changpeng Zhao and is one of the most widely used exchanges in the world based on trading volumes.
Binance Coin was initially an ERC-20 token that operated on the Ethereum blockchain. It eventually had its own mainnet launch. The network uses a proof-of-stake consensus model. As of September 2021, Binance Coin has a $71 billion market capitalization with one BNB having a value of $426.219. Tether (USDT)
Tether was one of the first and most popular of a group of so-called stablecoins, cryptocurrencies that aim to peg their market value to a currency or other external reference point to reduce volatility. Because most digital currencies, even major ones like Bitcoin, have experienced frequent periods of dramatic volatility, Tether and other stablecoins attempt to smooth out price fluctuations to attract users who may otherwise be cautious. Tether’s price is tied directly to the price of the U.S. dollar. The system allows users to more easily make transfers from other cryptocurrencies back to U.S. dollars in a more timely manner than actually converting to normal currency.Launched in 2014, Tether describes itself as “a blockchain-enabled platform designed to facilitate the use of fiat currencies in a digital manner.”22 Effectively, this cryptocurrency allows individuals to utilize a blockchain network and related technologies to transact in traditional currencies while minimizing the volatility and complexity often associated with digital currencies. As of September 2021, Tether is the fifth-largest cryptocurrency by market capitalization, with a total market cap of $68.3 billion and a per-token value of (you guessed it!) $1.23
10. Monero (XMR)Monero is a secure, private, and untraceable currency. This open-source cryptocurrency was launched in April 2014 and soon garnered great interest among the cryptography community and enthusiasts. The development of this cryptocurrency is completely donation-based and community-driven.24 Monero has been launched with a strong focus on decentralization and scalability, and it enables complete privacy by using a special technique called “ring signatures.”25With this technique, a group of cryptographic signatures appears, including at least one real participant, but the real one cannot be isolated since they all appear valid. Because of exceptional security mechanisms like this, Monero has developed something of an unsavory reputation—it has been linked to criminal operations around the world.26 While this is a prime candidate for making criminal transactions anonymously, the privacy inherent in Monero is also helpful to dissidents of oppressive regimes around the world. As of September 2021, Monero has a market capitalization of $245 million and a per-token value of $265.27Why are cryptocurrencies important?As decentralized platforms, blockchain-based cryptocurrencies allow individuals to engage in peer-to-peer financial transactions or enter into contracts. In either case, there is no need for some trusted third-party intermediary such as a bank, monetary authority, court, or judge. This has the potential to disrupt the existing financial order and democratize finance. The size of the cryptocurrency space has grown exponentially in the past decade, with new innovations and a collective market cap of nearly $2 trillion.1Why are there so many cryptocurrencies?
The majority of cryptocurrencies today are derived in some form or another from Bitcoin, which uses open-source code and a censorship-resistant architecture. This means that anybody can copy and tweak the code and create their own new coin. It also means that anybody is free to join its network or transact in it.What are some other important cryptocurrencies?
Aside from the ten listed above, several other cryptocurrencies have gained importance or hold the promise to do so. Dogecoin, for instance, a meme-based joke coin reached fame when Tesla CEO Elon Musk promoted the token on social media. Other bitcoin forks also exist such as Bitcoin Gold and Bitcoin SV. Other important coins include Ripple (XRP), Solana, USD Coin, and Tezos.Why is Bitcoin still the most important cryptocurrency?
Despite thousands of competitors that have sprung up, Bitcoin - the original cryptocurrency - remains the dominant player in terms of usage and economic value. Each coin is worth roughly $50,000 as of September 2021, with a market cap of nearly $1 trillion.How exactly to categorize Bitcoin is a matter of controversy. Is it a type of currency, a store of value, a payment network, or an asset class?
Fortunately, it's easier to define what Bitcoin actually is. It's software. Don't be fooled by stock images of shiny coins emblazoned with modified Thai baht symbols. Bitcoin is a purely digital phenomenon, a set of protocols and processes.It is also the most successful of hundreds of attempts to create virtual money through the use of cryptography, the science of making and breaking codes. Bitcoin has inspired hundreds of imitators, but it remains the largest cryptocurrency by market capitalization, a distinction it has held throughout its decade-plus history.(A general note: According to the Bitcoin Foundation, the word "Bitcoin" is capitalized when it refers to the cryptocurrency as an entity, and it is given as "bitcoin" when it refers to a quantity of the currency or the units themselves. Bitcoin is also abbreviated as BTC. Throughout this article, we will alternate between these usages.)KEY TAKEAWAYS
Bitcoin is a digital currency, a decentralized system that records transactions in a distributed ledger called a blockchain.Bitcoin miners run complex computer rigs to solve complicated puzzles in an effort to confirm groups of transactions called blocks; upon success, these blocks are added to the blockchain record and the miners are rewarded with a small number of bitcoins.
Other participants in the Bitcoin market can buy or sell tokens through cryptocurrency exchanges or peer-to-peer.The Bitcoin ledger is protected against fraud via a trustless system; Bitcoin exchanges also work to defend themselves against potential theft, though high-profile thefts have occurred.
The BlockchainBitcoin is a network that runs on a protocol known as the blockchain. A 2008 paper by a person or people calling themselves Satoshi Nakamoto first described both the blockchain and Bitcoin, and for a while, the two terms were all but synonymous.
The blockchain has since evolved into a separate concept, and thousands of blockchains have been created using similar cryptographic techniques. This history can make the nomenclature confusing. Blockchain sometimes refers to the original Bitcoin blockchain. At other times, it refers to blockchain technology in general, or to any other specific blockchain, such as the one that powers Ethereum.The basics of blockchain technology are mercifully straightforward. Any given blockchain consists of a single chain of discrete blocks of information, arranged chronologically. In principle, this information can be any string of 1s and 0s, meaning it could include emails, contracts, land titles, marriage certificates, or bond trades. In theory, any type of contract between two parties can be established on a blockchain as long as both parties agree on the contract. This takes away any need for a third party to be involved in any contract. This opens up a world of possibilities including peer-to-peer financial products, such as loans or decentralized savings and checking accounts, wherein banks or any intermediary is irrelevant.Though Bitcoin's current goal is to be a store of value as well as a payment system, there is nothing to say that Bitcoin could not be used in such a way in the future, though consensus would need to be reached to add these systems to Bitcoin. The main goal of the Ethereum project is to have a platform where these "smart contracts" can occur, therefore creating a whole realm of decentralized financial products without any middlemen or the fees and potential data breaches that come along with them.This versatility has caught the eye of governments and private corporations; indeed, some analysts believe that blockchain technology will ultimately be the most impactful aspect of the cryptocurrency craze.
In Bitcoin's case, though, the information on the blockchain is mostly transactions.Bitcoin is really just a list. Person A sent X bitcoin to person B, who sent Y bitcoin to person C, etc. By tallying these transactions up, everyone knows where individual users stand. It's important to note that these transactions do not necessarily need to take place between humans.
Anything can access and use the Bitcoin network, and your ethnicity, gender, religion, species, or political leaning is completely irrelevant. This creates vast possibilities for the Internet of things. In the future, we could see systems in which self-driving taxis or Uber vehicles have their own blockchain wallets. The passenger would send cryptocurrency directly to the car, which would not move until the funds were received. The vehicle would be able to assess when it needs fuel and use its wallet to facilitate a refill.Another name for a blockchain is a "distributed ledger," which emphasizes the key difference between this technology and a well-kept Word document. Bitcoin's blockchain is distributed, meaning that it is public. Anyone can download it in its entirety or go to any number of sites that parse it. This means that the record is publicly available, but it also means that there are complicated measures in place for updating the blockchain ledger. There is no central authority to keep tabs on all Bitcoin transactions, so the participants themselves do so by creating and verifying "blocks" of transaction data. See the section on mining below for more information.
You can see, for example, that 15N3yGu3UFHeyUNdzQ5sS3aRFRzu5Ae7EZ sent 0.01718427 bitcoin to 1JHG2qjdk5Khiq7X5xQrr1wfigepJEK3t on Aug. 14, 2017, between 11:10 and 11:20 a.m. The long strings of numbers and letters are addresses, and if you were in law enforcement or just very well informed, you could probably figure out who controlled them. It is a misconception that Bitcoin's network is totally anonymous, although taking certain precautions can make it very hard to link individuals to transactions.Post-Trust